Few Words on Volume

Written by: Kevin Cann


I was reading a thread that was about me on the internet yesterday and this topic was mentioned. Surprisingly, the thread was overwhelmingly positive in regard to the information about the way in which PPS does things.  This was a nice change of pace from the usual negativity.


One of things mentioned was that it seems that we are low volume and high intensity.  This is not necessarily wrong, but I think it is a good topic to discuss.  I think there is a lot of misinformation out there on the importance of volume as well.


First off how are we defining volume?  There are certain definitions of volume out there that I believe are quite useless.  One of those is total tonnage.  I do not feel that the total tonnage lifted in training tells us anything about the training session itself.


I view training from a behavioral learning/motor control lens.  I feel this includes all parts of the human including both psychological and physical.  If we just view training as a program of sets and reps, we can miss the piece about the human going through it.  The unpredictability of training also decreases the emphasis that should be placed on the program at the expense of the person in front of the coach.


There is a certain amount of practice required to develop a skill.  Someone cannot just squat one time per month and win a world championship.  I care about number of lifts in training for this reason.  But what lifts do I care about?


Do I care about how many reps are taken with the empty bar?  I want them to warmup with the empty bar, but I am not including this in the tracked volume of the session.  With the research out there, it seems as if sets completed from RPE 6 to RPE 10 have benefits towards increasing strength.


I include all lifts within these ranges as the total number of lifts per session, per week, per month, and so on.  In a max effort session, the lifter usually gets around 2 to 4 repetitions above 90% of 1RM.  They are warming up with singles and the singles previous to these attempts are most likely below the RPE 6 threshold.  Even if it was not, it is not really volume that I care about on this given day.  This is not an exact science, so an extra rep is not going to be a big deal if I miss it.


The goal of max effort is to build absolute strength.  I care about the singles at or near failure here.  This context redefines volume for me on this given day. I only want to count the reps that are useful to the goal that we are trying to achieve in the gym.


If a lifter hits a true RPE 10 on week 1, week 2 we will use a percentage of that number for a sets and reps.  This may look like:


Wide Stance Box Squat, 80% of last week, 1 set of 4-5 reps


I choose 80% because it is the average intensity that the majority of the repetitions were performed in the Soviet System.  Also, from the times we ran a more linear program, most lifters could execute 80% of 1RM for 4-5 reps.  This just so happens to be the same number of repetitions the lifter executed at higher intensities the week prior.  On max effort day we get 2-4 reps at the same RPEs.


The closer you are to RPE 6, the more volume you need.  The closer you are to an RPE 10, the less volume you need.  This is a general rule that I tend to follow.  Both days usually have some kind of backdown work.


I will say in many cases coaches just throw the kitchen sink at the lifter.  The lowest volume should be utilized to get results.  This is true on any program.  Throwing insanely high volumes at a lifter will ensure a stimulus is being achieved and will lead to short term results.  This will not work in the long term.


This backdown work that we perform is usually between 65% of 1RM and 80% of 1RM.  This may be the same variation we maxed out on or a different one that we are working on the technical breakdowns seen in the max work.  The percentage is taken from the max work of that day.


The number of lifts for backdowns is usually between 8 and 15, with some wiggle room to go higher depending on the variation used and the person.  We are getting between 10 and 20 reps of work between an RPE 7 and RPE 10.  If your program reads 5 sets of 4 reps at RPE 7, we have done similar volumes.


However, we get singles between RPE 9.5 and RPE 10.  Our specificity is higher.  Out of those 20 reps we are getting 2 to 4 reps between an RPE 8.5 and RPE 10.  Due to our intensity, we have a larger recovery cost.  This recovery is actually more psychological than physical.


Due to this greater recovery cost our frequency is limited to 1-2 times per week.  A program performing a 5×4 at RPE 7 will not have a huge recovery cost.  These programs allow the lifters to utilize a higher frequency if they so choose.


Many DUP programs may have 3 days where all of the lifts are performed.  It would be very difficult to do this with max singles thrown in there.  The fact that the RPEs are lower, the frequency and the volume can increase to drive results.


Lifters have limited time in the gym.  I prefer max singles due to the efficiency of training sessions.  When I first started coaching, training sessions would take 2-3 hours to complete.  Now they are completed in 1-1.5 hours and we are much stronger now than we were then.  This allows more time to get stuff done outside of the gym and more recovery time.


We can’t just max out every day in the gym.  Although this is literally what I have been doing for the last few months.  I know this is not the best program to be doing, but I wanted to, and I don’t care what is best.  I have been having a lot of fun training and looking forward to sessions.


My progress stalled pretty heavily and even went backwards some, but I still do not care.  I can’t emphasize enough that I am having fun training and right now, that is all that I want.  I am not weaker from training.  I am also not a good lifter.  I am not winning a world championship anytime soon (my goal is just to outlive everyone else to win).  If I stay consistent and keep training, I will adapt and get stronger no matter what I do.


That brings me to my next topic here, it takes time to adapt to a change in stimulus.  If you are coming from a high volume program to a conjugate style training program, you will see a dip in performance in the beginning. Your workload is dropping, this is common.  Also, your psychological pieces are not used to being challenged as frequently as they will be with a higher intense program.


I have had many lifters freak out the second a max effort lift is under their all-time best.  The process is not linear.  We are just looking to beat old PRs on variations by 5lbs in each wave.  Lifters are instructed to leave 5 to 10lbs on the bar each week.  On the 3rd week of a wave they can go full send.  In a perfect world we are really only maxing out 1 time per month.  However, sometimes what you think will be a good weight gets heavy fast.  When this happens the following week is sets and reps without max effort anyways, so at most lifters are truly maxing 2 times per month.  The other days there is 5-10lbs left for the following week.  The deadlift is rotated between max effort and dynamic effort/rep work every other week.


Since we cannot max out every day (do as I say not as I do), we need to use lighter days.  On these lighter days I look for an RPE 7 intensity, but we get as many as 15 sets of both squats and deadlifts done on the same day (30 sets total), and usually as low as 20 sets.  In these cases the reps per set for squats would be 2 and deadlifts 1 to 2.


If we use rep work the reps for squats will be between 20 to 30 and the reps for deadlifts between 10 and 20.  This is done on day 4 in the program.  We do dynamic bench work/rep work before pulls on day 3.  On these days bench press volume is between 25 and 35 reps.


These numbers are only including the working weight sets.  I used to include all warmups in my total number of lifts.  When we ran a more Sheiko style of programming, average number of lifts for a lifter would be between 150 and 200 lifts per week.  This included all warmups.


Now the average is between 100 and 130 lifts, not including warmups.  If we included warmups, our total number of lifts would be near the lower end of how we did it before.  Our average intensity is higher now, so volume needs to be a little lower.  With that said, it is not as high as you would think since only 7-10% of the total number of lifts are above 90% of 1RM.  The majority of our work is between 65% to 80% of 1RM.  This lowers the average quite a bit.


The problem with the lower intensity is that it requires more work, which requires more time.  This is a luxury many lifters do not have.  It also fails to train the psychological pieces of the sport.  I would argue the psychological may be more important than the physical.

Why More Volume is not the Answer

Written by: Kevin Cann


I know many programs are heavy volume based.  This is not to say that they do not work.  They definitely can.  I was on one for 3 years working with Boris Sheiko.  My number of lifts stayed very close to the same over that time period, but my maxes were going up which made the absolute values of given percentages heavier.


This makes us step back and define volume.  I define volume as number of top sets.  Think RPE 8/8.5 or higher.  If you use percentages this would be 80-85% or higher.  Based off of this definition my volumes did not change as the number of lifts and the effort of those lifts was pretty similar.


My workload increased over time.  This is sets x reps x weight.  The majority of my sets were performed with the 3-6 rep range, with an average intensity of 70% plus or minus 2%.  This included all warmups of 50% of 1RM and greater.


This definitely worked.  I saw continued progress for 3 years.  Now, I was a beginner.  I could have seen that progress doing anything, but I do believe this was an extremely well done program.  For a coach that speaks a different language, and I discussed things over email, this is exactly what I needed.  It is also what I needed as a newer lifter.  Just follow the program.


I gave my lifters similar programs following the rules that Sheiko laid out.  What I saw was that my lifters were hitting walls and getting stuck.  This may just be because I was not good at manipulating these training volumes, assessing the lifts and assigning the appropriate variations, who knows.


Dave Tate says that all sticking points are either mental, technical, or physical, I would throw an and between all of those too, as there can be a whole pile of issues sometimes.  I noticed for many the issues were mental.


The lifters were getting nervous when they were faced with heavier weights.  In a Sheiko program, most sets are performed at 85% of 1RM and less.  This does not disregard the mental, but it is for the mental aspects of higher level lifters in a different culture.


Submaximal weights build success.  You never miss.  This is a big argument for those that utilize these types of programs.  You train with success you should see success on the platform.  I was dealing with less experienced lifters in a very different culture.  This is where we made a switch to lifting heavier.


What we see in the literature, as well as what I have seen in the real world, is that if you want to get better at lifting heavy singles you need to lift heavy singles.  Heavy singles are the sport.  In any sport I have ever participated, practicing the sport has always been important.


I know some programs will do a single at like an RPE 8.  This is not to make waves, but just my thoughts on this.  To me a single at an RPE 8 is a walkthrough in a sport practice.  It does not have the psychological pieces tied to it like a more maximal effort attempt.  There is not risk of consequences, like a missed rep.


When I discussed training with Dr. Keith Davids, he spoke about training with consequences as this carries over greater to competition.  We underestimate the importance of sports psychology with our lifters because it is difficult to track.  Volumes and intensities are easy to track.


We can’t just max out all of the time.  It would be great if we could, but just like with other sports, intensities of practice alternates.  One reason is for recovery.  There is some positive recovery stuff from singles.


Singles for one come with lower volume.  CNS fatigue is not a thing.  I honestly feel this may just be a myth from equipped lifters.  I know I get some crazy brain fog type issues going on after being in the equipment to lift.  I do not see this with raw lifters.  Singles are easier to recover from in a physical sense.  Psychologically, probably not and that is the issue.


The singles get the lifters in and out of the gym.  This gives them greater recovery time.  My lifters all work full-time jobs.  The more efficient we can make training the better.  Nothing is more efficient than heavy singles.


Variation allows us to hit these singles almost every week.  If a previous week had a very tough single with a variation, we will use a percent of that for reps the following week to change it up.  Sometimes there just is not any place to go.  This follows all of the guidelines that Sheiko laid out.


The percent is accurate as it comes from a max effort attempt from a week ago.  The number of lifts and average intensity follows what he taught me.  This addresses the technical and physical components of the lifts, while giving the mental a break and not forcing a miss in training.  We usually do light backdowns after the singles to work on technique and just build some workload.


Building workload is important for conditioning.  Having the ability to do this increases the lifter’s ability to recover from training.  If we need to pull back to give them a break, I can remove these and just replace them with more bodybuilding style exercises.  I prefer this workload to come from some form of the lifts as there will be greater carryover from them for our totals.


The second half of the week is rep or dynamic work.  This looks very similar to what it did when I was following a stricter Sheiko program.  We do utilize some of Westside’s ideas on dynamic work as well.


This is for load management.  Sometimes the lifters need a wave of lighter weights to just move around and recover.  These days will also utilize variations to increase technical efficiency as well as attack weaknesses.


These rep and dynamic days are not going to build 1RM strength that great.  They instead are assisting in the growth of 1RM.  Remember all sticking points are mental, technical, or physical.  These days address those needs without crushing the lifter.


It is not like our programs are just singles and we disregard volume.  There is a decent amount of volume in there.  If we define volume as top sets of RPE 8/8.5 or higher, than we probably have more than most.  This is with heavy singles in training, so greater specificity and carryover to increasing 1RM.


Our workloads are probably far less than others.  Our total workload for deadlifts is very low.  Our frequency is much lower than most programs I see in the USAPL.  This leads to a few of my lifters telling me that they think they need more volume.


Again, how are we defining volume?  In most cases they just want an increased number of lifts.  First, we need to identify what the actual issue is.  Is it mental, physical, or technical?  Is increasing the number of lifts going to correct one of these issues?  Maybe, but there is a lot we can do before increasing number of lifts.


First off, many lifters think they are stuck when they really are not.  This shit is not linear.  There will be periods of time where you do not hit PRs.  If you put 5lbs on each lift every 3 months, that would be 60lbs on a total each year.  That is a lot.  Progress happens incrementally over a longer time scale.  Yuri Belkin went 5 years without a PR.  All of us will experience these periods.  Learn to enjoy the sport and not chase numbers or you will quit.


Increasing workload can make you stronger.  Lots of lifters on a higher frequency, higher volume program, get really strong really quick.  However, the long term success of a program like that is debatable.


Equipped lifters tend to have longer lifting careers.  They also tend to not do as much volume as raw lifters.  This is just a correlation though.  They also lift higher absolute loads.  So lower volume, higher intensity.


Now, it could just be that they experience greater variability in training so less psychological burnout.  These are just observations without any science to back it up, but something to think about.


Someone like Dave Hoff has been training for almost 20 years.  He went years with minimal increases in total.  By minimal, like a couple pounds each year.  He just competed and added about 100lbs to his total.


I am not there to see him train, but his absolute loads are enormous.  He is staying healthy enough to continue to break world record totals.  I understand it is multiply and not drug tested.  That does not make me want to disregard that information.


I am not sure there are examples of that with higher frequency, higher volume programs.  The Russians have over 10 years of lifting experience before they get into a program of those higher volumes.  They have a much larger base than the Americans doing them.


Perhaps those Americans with a long bodybuilding background are more prepared for that style of training. This is not the majority of the lifters performing these programs.  They have a limited athletic background and just jump right into it.  Sheiko recommended 3 days per week for beginners, and some of these beginners are training 5 days per week.


This makes me reluctant to add in barbell lift volume/workload. If they want to do more, hit more bodybuilding as long as you can recover from it.  I do not think this will make their totals greater, but it increases their tolerance for workload.  This may lead to a longer career.  It may not either.  Perhaps all we need is a stable training program that looks at technique first, before increasing workload.


This makes recovery easier for the lifter and increases in workload more gradual.  Remember, Sheiko did not increase my number of lifts over 3 years.  My workload just increased gradually as I got stronger.  If I did not get stronger, it stayed the same.


Exercises were selected to work on technical inefficiencies.  We keep a lot of what we did back then, or better have slowly returned.  We do this in combination with max effort singles.  We focus on mental, technical, and physical pieces of training.

It Is Not All About Volume

Written By: Kevin Cann


There are so many things that go into getting stronger and writing a good program.  However, I feel all too often there is a major focus on only one of them, volume.


Now, we can’t deny the importance of volume to getting stronger.  There needs to be an adequate amount of volume in order for the lifter to improve.  However, we can’t just keep adding volume every week.


Your body doesn’t work on a 7-day cycle.  It doesn’t even know what 7 days is.  A week being 7 days is a manmade calendar event.  It isn’t like on Sunday your body goes “I am adapted and ready for more volume.”


I would argue that load management is the most important aspect of training.  Volume is definitely a part of this.  We want to vary low, medium, and high load days to keep the athlete as healthy as possible and to continually push progress.


One thing about a Sheiko program is it never gets too far away from volume baseline.  This is either up or down.  There are none of these sharp spikes in volumes.  I think too often coaches are looking for “overreaching” Overreaching is basically the step before overtraining.  Many believe that if you do this effectively and follow it with a deload something magical happens to the athlete and they get stronger.


To be honest, I am not sure overreaching is a thing.  Even if it was, how would we know for sure we are achieving it?  If we are using a large spike in volume, we need to be careful as we can actually increase injury risk.  If our 7-day volume average exceeds our average per week for a month we increase the risk.  This doesn’t mean they will get hurt, but the risk increases and is the risk worth the reward?


One thing we need to keep in mind with volume is that it needs to be specific to the sport.  When I am talking about volume, I am talking about volume in the competition lifts and their variations.  The majority of the volume in a program should come from these exercises.


Technique should not be put aside to add more volume.  I take that back.  There are times that we need to accept technique for what it is and start driving volumes.  This is for a lifter that is competitive at the national level with a chance of placing.


This should not be done with beginners or those that are just part of the middle of the pack.  Beginners will get stronger no matter what.  We need to make sure they exit the period of beginner gains with solid technique.  This sets them up for continued success.


Same rules apply to the middle of the pack.  If you want to continue to improve to eventually place, technique needs to be an important aspect of training.  This ensures that you can continue to increase your total.


Getting stronger in shitty positions will limit your ceiling with the amount of weight you can lift. Think about it logically, if you deadlift with the chest too far in front of the bar, wouldn’t you lift more if you used your legs more?  I would argue yes.  It may not happen at first, but over time you will.


Every lifter, regardless of skill level, should be assessing weaknesses and attacking them in training. They should spend as much time as possible doing this.  If you aren’t competing for 6 months, take a few months to do this.


This doesn’t mean that you have to lift light.  Find a variation that targets a weakness and basically treat that lift as your comp lift. Need to improve leg strength in the squat?  Use some wide stance variations.


I know people reading this will be like wide stance squats?  Aren’t close stance squats better for quad development?  I use a lot of close stance squats as well, but find the wide stance help the lifter remain more upright in the squat, which is often blamed on weak quads.


Trying to make sense of this, I think this is what it is.  We know wide stance squats target the glutes more.  However, it doesn’t show it hits the quads anymore or any less than other stance widths.


Some research suggests that the hamstrings stiffen up and this allows the glutes to assist the quads in knee extension and vice versa.  Perhaps the glutes getting stronger allows them to better assist the quads?    Perhaps the glutes play a bigger role to keeping the athlete more upright in the squat? Perhaps the wide stance teaches the lifter to keep the hips under the bar more because if pitching happens with a high bar wide stance you will fall over.


Once you plan the variations to target weaknesses literally treat them like your competition lift. Knees cave in with wide stance squats, use wide stance pause halfway up squats.  Drive these weaknesses until the lifter is able to handle typical training weights in this altered position.


As the competition draws near, make it more specific.  I actually drop the frequency during the times that we are using variations and add volume in accessories.  Typically the lifter is not a skilled at these variations, so I am treating them as if they were a beginner.  This also helps keep volume down a bit in the offseason.


One thing to keep in mind with us is we always train heavy.  Effort is always high in the comp lifts and their variations.  I used to use higher volumes with the lifters, but this led to lower weights being used and typically lower RPEs on the top sets.


What I found with this that the lifters struggled when it was time to lift heavier.  This struggle was either psychological, technical, or both. Technique under heavy weights is a bit different than with lighter weights.


We do much more lifting at 90% or higher than most.  Often, my lifters are taking these weights for heavy sets of 1 to 3 reps.  I do not let them grind out reps.  It should be an RPE 9/9.5 at most and technique breakdown has to be very minimum.  I find that doing this over time their technique with heavier weights gets better as well as their confidence.  If I can, we will take those numbers on variations.


In order to do this, we see a drop in overall volume.  However, like I said earlier, volume is very important.  As a competition draws near and we increase the frequency of the comp lifts, our volumes increase quite a bit.


The squat volume I keep around the same, but the majority of reps are comp squats.  The added frequency of bench and deadlifts adds quite a bit to total tonnage and the deadlifts work the same muscles as the squat.  I use the squat volume to drive deadlift volume in the offseason, but deadlift volume to drive more squat volume in a meet prep.


After pushing squat variations for a bit, once the lifter gets back into their comp stance the weights start flying up.  This is where the added squat volume tends to come from.  This is where we use volume to drive progress at competitions.


I think too often lifters and coaches attempt to drive volumes year-round.  This can only last for so long.  Dropping frequency allows for some deconditioning to higher volumes to occur.  This way when we bring it back in there is more of a benefit.


I think volumes matter most by what the athlete is used to doing.  Following the ACWR we can lower average baseline volumes for a period of time, then we can blast volumes appropriately beyond that baseline and peak or a meet.  After we peak volumes, we have a lighter load week, test 17-20 days out and taper from there.


Then we assess and do it all over again.

Effort in Training

Written by: Kevin Cann


I had a conversation with my coach, Jeremy Hartman, earlier this week.  It was mostly about how my training is going.  One of the things I told him that I liked about the program was the heavier sets.


He had mentioned his time at Westside and how they lift heavy often.  Westside has many faults in their programming for raw lifters, but there are some things that we can learn from them.


I think effort and mental toughness are the two biggest takeaways from a program like that.  I love taking singles with my lifters. However, we don’t max out.  We will work up to a single at around an RPE 9. We also do not do that every week. This may happen 1-2 times in a 4-week block and could be with a variation or the comp lift.


Lifting heavy builds confidence and mental toughness.  Most lifters that begin with me don’t understand what average training strain feels like.  They are capable of so much more than they think, and it is my job as a coach to show them that.


Most people come in and are scared of the squat.  Putting the right weight on the bar to get them to strain to their capabilities while not missing repetitions is critical to developing a lifter.  Through effort and coaching we build confidence and mental toughness.  This is often the reason my lifters get big jumps on their totals early on when working with me.


It is not necessarily the program.  It is hard to nail down a program that fits that lifter right away.  It is through teaching them the mental aspects of the sport while working hard.  Fixing technique issues goes a long way here as well.


However, the technique issues we tend to fix are bar placement, head position, and elbow position. With national level lifters that the technique is good enough and they have some experience to tolerate some higher volumes, they are putting 60-80lbs on their squats in a few months.


Emily went from a 230lb squat to 300lbs in 16 weeks

Doug went from a 336lb squat to a 420lb squat in 16 weeks

Danielle Nguyen went from a 235lb squat to a 305lb squat in a year

Mike Agius went from a 450lb squat to a 495lb squat in 20 weeks

Maytal went from a 300lb squat to 365lbs in 16 weeks

Mike Damico is taking his previous best squat for singles in training at a conservative RPE 9 in 12 weeks

Jess Ward has taken 315lbs for 3 sets of 4 and 325lbs for 4 sets of 3 in the squat when her max is 350lbs in 14 weeks


This list does not include the beginners.  I do not include them due to beginner gains.  Everyone included in that list is qualified or has competed at Nationals.  This list does not include Kerry Sachs, Nick Santangelo, and Dave Rocklage who are all ranked in the top 25 in the squat in the USAPL database for 2018, with Kerry being number 11.


When we talk about programming we always talk about volumes, average relative intensities, load management, and exercise selection.  We very rarely discuss the mental aspects of the sport, which are more important than many people think.  It is not all about mechanical stress.


Mechanical stress is extremely important and all of those things I listed matter, but we need to find a way to include the building of confidence and other mental aspects of the sport.  We can do this with effort.


Effort is an internal feeling.  What the lifter feels and what the coach sees can be very different.  There needs to be some middle ground reached here between the 2. Oftentimes the weight feels heavy to the lifter but looks easier to the coach.


These are the opportunities to add some weight to the bar.  It has to be enough weight to be harder, but not too much.  Missing a heavier weight can actually shatter their confidence. Although, I do think learning it is ok to miss repetitions is a valuable lesson as well in this I need to go 9 for 9 world.  However, we need to learn to miss the weight because it is too heavy not because we are scared.


Research shows us that rep ranges between 3 and 6 with 1 to 4 reps in reserve (RIR) are best for hypertrophy and strength.  Tim Gabbett also talks about “Training Smarter and Harder” in his research on the acute chronic work ratio (ACWR).


The ACWR is a monitoring tool for athlete readiness.  The chronic workload is the 28-day average for volumes and the acute workload is this week’s volume.  If we divide the chronic workload by the acute workload, we get a ratio.


A ratio between .80 and 1.30 is deemed the sweet spot.  This is the ratio that athletes tend to see a decreased risk of injury.  Training is protective against injury, but too much and we run the risk of increasing our risk.  That ratio allows us to get enough work, but not too much.


This ratio is important if we want to increase the effort of training.  I want training to be hard.  It builds physiologically strong lifters, but also mentally tough lifters. I like the top sets being at an RPE 8 and 9.


This could mean for variations, higher rep sets (between 4 and 6 reps), or singles in the comp lifts. No matter how we look at it, if last set RPE is the same, tonnage is the same, number of lifts are the same, and average relative intensities are the same we can get creative.  In this case a single at an RPE 9 with back off volumes of equal tonnage, and average intensities equal to a 5×5 at a LSRPE 9 is no different.  In fact, the single has some added benefits mentally for the lifter.


Our programs are moderate frequency, moderate volume, and high effort.  The more veteran the lifter, the more volume that they get. We earn the right to lift more weight. The ones that have been with me for a while get a lot of volume with a lot of effort, but they were preparing for that the past couple years of training.


How we organize that total tonnage, average intensities, and effort is where I get to be creative as a coach.  Variations will not use as much absolute loads if we want to use those to push effort. This holds tonnage and average intensities down.


We can do hard triples of comp squats on one day and hard triples on a variation on another.  Even though the effort is the same, the comp squats are using somewhere around 85% and the variation is somewhere between 75% and 80%. This is a 5% to 10% drop in load while keeping effort the same.


The comp squats would be a medium stress day and the variation would be a lower stress day due to the drop-in load.  The other squat day will probably be something with higher volumes.  Perhaps 70% for 5 sets of 6 reps.  This is to build the volume and the number of lifts that we want. This would also be a higher stress day because of the total volume.  Volume is more stressful than intensity.


We need to organize training with enough low, medium, and high stress training days, and weeks. This allows the athlete to continue to make progress while decreasing the risk for injury and burnout.


We can have a lower stress week by just taking doubles in all 3 squats with a LSRPE of 8.  This drops total volume quite a bit but keeps effort high.  We need to make sure we have enough volume to keep the ACWR in check, and oftentimes this is what will dictate the number of sets.  These doubles tend to be around 90%.  This is a heavy training week and the athlete would never know that stress is lower.


There do have to be some boxes checked for the athlete to really push that effort.  They must come into the gym in a normal to excited mood. If they were just sick, or have a lot going on they are not allowed to increase weight, only decrease weight.


If we push one day really hard, we do not push all others.  Sometimes we will push one day really hard and drop weight or reps on a following day in the same week.  In the offseason we only do comp lifts on 3 days, so I am more open to pushing the lifts on all days here, because day 4 is just bodybuilding so loads are lower than they would be closer to the competition.  Deconditioning is a good tool to use if used correctly.


This article is getting long so I will cut it here.  These principles make the backbone of our training.  Perhaps I will do a podcast on it next week.

Importance of Data Collection and Volume Manipulation in Powerlifting

Written by: Kevin Cann


I collect a ton of data. I collect number of lifts, total number of competition lifts without variation, percent of lifts that are squat, bench press, and deadlift, total tonnage, ACWR, and average relative intensities.  I do this daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly in a spreadsheet.


I would not go through all of that trouble if I did not think it was important.  On top of that, the lifters write down their mood entering the gym and LSRPE for all major lifts.  I use all of this information to help me write their programs along with the analysis of their lifts.


This also helps me to identify courses of action when things do not go well.  For example, with Kerry Sachs’ deadlift.  She has experienced some major inconsistencies in her deadlift from Nationals last year.


She pulled 342lbs at Nationals in October, missed 319lbs at the Arnold, hit 350lbs on July 4th, missed 330lbs on July 21stat competition.  As a coach, I have no idea why this has been the case.  It would be great if we had all of the answers, but sometimes we don’t.


What do we do when we don’t have the answers?  I think in most cases for coaches out there they just guess.  I have a good feeling that not many coaches actually collect a good amount of data on each lifter.


I don’t have answers in this case, but I got a lot to look at to identify a plan.  I analyzed Kerry’s programs dating back to Raw Nationals prep from last year.  From there I try to catch trends that led to the big deadlifts that maybe weren’t there when she struggled.  Not much really stood out.


She hit some big pulls with higher volumes, and others when volumes were low, but intensity was a bit higher.  I was a little stumped by this.  I do think there are some psychological factors as well as technique issues that play a role in these inconsistencies.  However, we need to find a middle ground with technique so that she does not take a step back.


What do we know for sure leads to strength gains?  We can 100% stand behind volume leading to increases strength.  This is undeniable, and I am sure every coach will agree with this. Because I collect so much data, I went back and looked at Kerry’s deadlift volume.


Oftentimes I will use squat volume to drive deadlifts since they work similar muscles.  This has led to steady increases in the squat for Kerry over time.  I decided to stop doing that and actually use deadlift volume to drive the deadlift.


The most deadlift volume that Kerry has gotten in a 4-week period was around 52,000lbs.  This was leading into her July meet and a block before she pulled 350lbs on July 4th.  It peaked 4 weeks out from her test, which was about 2.5 weeks out from competition.


Knowing this, I decided to stress deadlift volume by 10% in this current block and peak that volume around the same time period.  Most deadlift volume in a week was 18,000lbs and this was last week, 4 weeks out from her test.  The week before was 15,000lbs of deadlift volume, he second largest volume week since Nationals of last year.


After that peak in volume we are ramping up intensity but keeping deadlift volume about 10% higher than her average weekly volume from the previous couple of blocks and making sure we maintain an ACWR of at least .80.


I couldn’t just add more top sets to increase her volume by this much.  This would beat her up too much.  This is where we can manipulate volumes with lighter weights to help build the tonnage we are looking for.  We have enough heavier sets and reps in there to make sure our average relative intensity stays high enough.


In fact, in those higher volume deadlift weeks the average relative intensity was 2-3% lower than where she is at as we come down from that.  I added volume in the sets between 50% and 75%.


A Russian study showed that all reps at 50% of 1RM and higher yielded positive affects to strength and hypertrophy.  I added in volume in these lower intensity ranges but stretched a top set out a bit to drive intensity a bit higher.


Instead of working up to 80% for 5 sets of 3, we did more sets working up to it and ended up hitting one top set around 90% for a triple.  Once we hit that triple, we backed off to a variation to work on issues at a much lower intensity.  This added even more volume in those lower intensity ranges.


The top single had a much higher LSRPE and there were 9 reps taken at 80% or higher.  If I wanted to perform 80% for 5×3 there are 15.  I now need to get that effort for a few more reps. If we use a deficit and a pause at 70%, it is much harder than 70%.  Your body does not know weight, only effort.  We performed a 4×2 here for 8 additional reps.  This brought us up to 14 with the effort that I am looking for, with one set exceeding the effort that we typically look for.


This is why I feel tracking lighter sets is very important.  It gives us another data point to manipulate to help drive athlete success.  I can also manipulate lifter fatigue heading into work sets utilizing lighter weights.


The PPS OGs got some mega squat pyramids where there were lots of high rep sets between 50% and 75% before they got to some doubles at 85%.  They then did lots of volume going back down between 75% and 50%.  We had enough higher intensity reps to drive strength, that are now more difficult due to volume before, and technique stays pretty solid.


Whether this is going to work for Kerry is unknown right now.  At the end of the day it is a guess.  However, I feel confident in my guess because it is educated based off the massive amounts of data I collect on each lifter.